Yonin (jo)

There is yojutsu and injutsu in ninjutsu. Yojutsu is the way of entering an enemy territory by using a wise stratagem. Injutsu means infiltrating unnoticed by using a personal disguise. This volume will discuss the many ways and stratagems for infiltrating the enemy and gathering information. Therefore, yojutsu is [also] called yonin.

*The term ninjutsu is used here only in reference to the act of entering an enemy territory. Yojutsu could be any kind of infiltration that uses some sort of disguise (i.e., komuso, performers, fortune tellers, etc'). Injutsu is when the infiltration and information gathering is done completely unnoticed. For example, entering the enemy territory at night and hiding in the bushes during the day while observing the enemy's movements.


Early Assesment: Six Items

First. Shiho no kami is changing the hair style in the early preparation [for infiltration], according to place of engagement. That is, depending on time and place, adopt the appearance of shukke, yamabushi, or hato no kai. Also, you can change your appearance by shaving your hair in a "moon cut" according to local customs in the other province, in such a way that a man appears like a woman. All these four hair styles are the foundation for changing [one's appearance] in the early preparations [for shinobi iri].

*In this article the author lists four fundamental ways to cut one's hair as part of adopting a certain appearance. Though the author uses the term "four ways/methods" (shiho), this term can also mean any number of ways/methods. Also, since the hair cut is only to create a certain image, one can adopt other images and cut the hair according to customs.

*The term "shukke" refers to a person who renounced the world and took the Buddhist precepts. In other words, its a monk with a shaved head. The shaved head was an indication for a person who became a monk.

Yamabushi were most commonly Kumano shugenja who travel extensively. This was a common disguise because it allowed for smooth crossing of provincial borders and check points.

Hato no kai is a term by which some fortune tellers were called. These fortune tellers, who often dressed like traveling monks, used doves to read fortune, and asked passers by to give them money so that they could feed their doves. These fortune tellers also traveled extensively and thus were a perfect disguise for information gatherers.